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[学习建议] 定语从句的用法和精练

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发表于 2016-9-23 19:40:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
一、定语从句的概念
    在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。
    二、定语从句的关系词
    引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose),关系副词包where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。
    三、定语从句的分类
    根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。
    四、关系代词的用法
    1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
    Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐(that作主语)
    The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)
    2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
    The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)
    The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)
    3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:
    The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)
    Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语)
    注意:(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用介词+which/whom”结构。例如:
    This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。
    Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。
(2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:
    This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。
    (3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:
    The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。
    (4)关系词只能用that的情况:
    a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。
    b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?
    c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。
    d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:
    I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。
    e.whowhich引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:
    Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?
    f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:
    There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。
    (5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:
    a.先行词为that, those,which, 而不用that.例如:
    What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?
    b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:
    This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。
    c.引导非限制性定语从句,which, 而不用that.例如:
    Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。
    五、关系副词的用法
    (1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:
    This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。
    (2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:
    This is place where he works.这是他工作的地点。
    (3)why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:
    Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

  I.单项填空。
    1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father?
    -Yes, he’s our headmaster.
    A. he B. who C. which D. whom
    2. Is this the river _____I can swim?
    A. which B. in which C. that D. the one
    3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know.
    A. where B. which C. that D. it
    4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day?
    A. that you bought B. you bought it
    C. that you bought it D. which you bought it
    5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands.
    A. which agrees B. who agree
    C. who agrees D. which agree
6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing.
    A. that B. it C. which who
    7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate
    A. who’s B. whose C. that of which.
    8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister.
    A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who; was
    9. I love places ______the people are really friendly.
    A. that B. which C. where D. who
    10. The world ______ is made up of matter.
    A. in that we live B. on which we live
    C. where we live in D. we live in
    . 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。
    1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.
    2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.
    3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.
    4. The house _____we live in is very old.
    5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?
  答案:CBCAC   ABCCB   That ,which ,which ,who ,whom .


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